CLEAs

Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

CLEAs

Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

CLEAs

Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

CLEAs

Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

Cross-Linked Enzyme Aggregates

An accepted term in enzyme immobilization that you find in many articles. The invention of CLEAs around the beginning of the century at the Technical University Delft was the starting point of our company and hence we are the company with the longest experience in this technology.

Covalent Bond. The enzymes in the CLEA are covalently bound to each other by a cross-linker. In many cases, this increases the stability of the enzyme against pH, temperature, solvents or proteases. Leakage is extremely low to non existent.

High Activity. CLEAs are carrier free systems with a very high enzyme loading compared to any other form of enzyme immobilization. In many cases, the activity per volume is even higher than the commercially available soluble enzyme it is made of. This makes them ideal for various pharma reactions where high enzyme loadings are used.

Low Cost. Avoiding the carrier has an impact on the costs. Certainly in low cost – high volume enzyme applications, like in first or second generation ethanol, this has a major impact.

Tuning. By using different surface treatments, the polarity of the CLEA can be easily tuned to the reaction. This has a remarkable effect on the efficacy of the enzyme in the reaction.

Recycle. Also, due to their stability and the nature of the immobilization, CLEAs can be recycled many times, depending on the intrinsic stability of the enzym mainly.

Profitable. We don’t talk about costs, we talk about cost reduction. The profitability of a CLEA lies in the number of cycles needed to make it worthwhile versus the cycles made in practice. The more expensive the enzyme, the easier to reach break-even. Activity recovery is an important parameter. Also: the higher the volume, the lower the cost.
As a rule of thumb, we aim for maximum 5 cycles to make it worthwhile. In practice, many CLEAs make thirty cycles. Cost reductions of well over 50% can often be realized.

Time to Market. Designing a CLEA of your enzyme is a few weeks work. This will be enough for you to evaluate the potential application. In a second stage, we will optimize the CLEA in your reaction. Bringing the cost down and/or increasing the activity and stability. Scaling up can be done at CLEA, under a license agreement at your place or outsourced to a toll manufacturer.

Until now, we have made CLEAs of well over a hundred different enzymes. Not only single-enzyme CLEAs, but also Combi-CLEAs where different enzymes are combined in one CLEA, in which we often see synergistic effects.